2017 Celebrity Invitational

posted Aug 21, 2017, 7:08 AM by IOD-WCA Webmaster

Richard Werdiger of Great Harbor Yacht Club became the first local helmsman since 2008 to take top honors at the IOD Celebrity Invitational Regatta (August 17-18), a marquis event of Nantucket Race Week. It was a back-to-back win for his celebrity tactician, Jud Smith, who was on the same podium last year with skipper Ted Moore of Marblehead. This time around, Moore and celebrity tactician Mark Reynolds accumulated the same score as Werdiger/Smith, losing the tie-breaker to the winners’ three first place finishes. New York Yacht Club commodore Phil Lotz, with celebrity tactician Mike Marshall finished a close third, one point behind the tied leaders.

A magic formula draws some of the country’s best sailors to the regatta. The potion mixes several special ingredients. Member-owned Nantucket IOD Fleet Association offers up its sparkling matched set of 15 identical International One Design class sloops. Nantucket Yacht Club and Great Harbor Yacht Club combined for flawless race management and well planned onshore activities. Many local and summer residents open their homes to accommodate the visiting sailors, while others volunteer for essential support roles. The kicker might be the mission of the event – fundraising support for Nantucket Community Sailing – that lures elite sailors to take a busman’s holiday and give back to the sport. These world and national champions, Olympians, America’s Cup veterans and similarly accomplished experts constitute a pool of Celebrity Tacticians, who are “auctioned” among the entrants – themselves top amateur helmsmen and crew from various parts of the country, whose entry fees and donations support NCS.

Nantucket Sound deserves its reputation as a great sailboat racing venue. But nature is fickle, and the fleet drifted on the first of two scheduled race days, as vying weather fronts conspired to skunk all racing other than a practice lap. The race committee, headed by NYC’s Eric Robbins regrouped very early on day two, pulling off four flawless races and a legitimate test, worthy of the competitors. Thirteen to sixteen knots of wind from the south, with only subtle shifts, placed a premium on clean starts, speed and boat handling. Tidal current, ebbing east to west across the north-south course seemed to be a minor determinant.

In every race, the fleet rounded the initial upwind mark within twenty seconds of the leaders. Ensuing tangles, penalty turns and downwind theatrics created some separation, but the fight continued for every position throughout the fleet. Talent was deep, and it was sometimes difficult to discern which elite sailor bore the celebrity designation. Reigning IOD world champion Charlie VanVoorhis, US Sailing head Jack Gearhart and Sailing World editor Dave Reed comprised the “civilian” crew of fourth place skipper Gary Jobson and celebrity tactician Pat Healy.

Among numerous elite female tacticians who were invited, the only woman in that role this year was Suzy Leech, assigned to a crack team led by Henry Filter of Chesapeake Bay. Leech’s fleet and match racing skills were on display in every start. Their team “Wild Child” led the first race wire to wire.

Werdiger’s winning crew included Miles Cameron, Will Christensen and John Edenbach, all skilled amateurs with day jobs as teacher, banker and audio specialist. Their tactician Jud Smith, head of one-design sails for Doyle Sailmakers, packs a long resume of sailing accomplishments, from dinghies to America’s Cup and offshore racers. After a premature start in the first race, the team had zero margin for error, needing three aces just to tie for points. In this fleet, doing so made the win especially well deserved.

During the awards ceremony, honorary chair Tom Whidden recognized event co-chairs Sandy Adzick and Chris Gould and the many people making the regatta possible. The Allsopp Trophy, which is dedicated to the late, longtime supporter and regular participant in the event Jim Allsopp, was presented to the winners by his son James.

Building an International One Design

posted Jul 13, 2017, 7:59 AM by IOD-WCA Webmaster   [ updated Jul 14, 2017, 6:37 AM ]

by Chris Hoyt

I've been working on building an International One Design (IOD) since 1995. My dad John P. Hoyt, Jr. owned "Princess" US 47 and we sailed her on Lake Champlain, inland sea - Lake Champlain Islands, at Cold Spring Camp, Milton, VT from 1960 - 1997. She won several races including the St Albans Bay Ted Brooks trophy in 1960.

I lofted the IOD in 1995 at my home on the Lamoille River in Milton, VT.  My boat shop was called "Hoyt's Boat Shop". I built the IOD stem and a few station molds to use in a strong back. I also built a few racing Adirondack guide boats and cedar strip canoes.

In 2003 I restored Princess in Hinesburg, VT

I moved to Parker, CO in 2005 and I began building all the IOD in 2011. To this date, I have the following parts built: station molds, stems, keelson, keel, deck beams, rudder post, deck beams, horn timber, timber floors and stations ribs.

I moved all the parts to Blue River, CO at my second home in 2015. I have a 40 foot deck underneath my living room second story deck. The IOD project, station molds,  strong back and back bone sit on top of the deck. This summer I will be finishing up three Laughing Loon Mystic Star sea kayaks designed by Rob Macs. These kayaks are helping fund the IOD materials (14 gallons of epoxy, cotton flax, 6 oz. cloth, white oak and Douglas Fur planking).  I'm planning to steam the IOD ribs that are spaced between the station ribs and install the timber floors. After those steps are complete I will be ready to plank the hull (built upside down).

Photos: IOD, ADK guide-boats, Bill Platt coaches launch, Mystic Star kayak.

I think it would be great to have an IOD fleet on Lake Dillon some day!


Hoyt IOD #1


Some photos of the IOD project in Blue River, CO. I'm currently constructing the timber floors for all of the stations, mast step and keel bolt locations. Dick Homer updated me on the Sparkman and Stephens upgrade to the floors at the mast step in the 1990s. I'll add material and add wings to the mast step floors to strength the mast step.

Next I'm planning to mill the planking.

Hoyt IOD #2


I bought some lumber at Frank Paxton's Lumber in Denver.  The mahogany was on sale 4.42 bf. Normally is 9.00+ dollars a board foot.

I've got enough white oak to finish the keel, floors and ribs.

Hoyt IOD #3


After lining up the keel on top of the keelson I found that stations 8 and 9 needed some adjusting. I was able to get all the stations, keel bolt centers lined up per the IOD working plans, keel bolt plan and the lead ballast keel drawing specifications.

Hoyt IOD #4


Ted Murphy wins Nantucket Invitational in a tie breaker.

posted Jul 13, 2017, 7:14 AM by IOD-WCA Webmaster   [ updated Jul 13, 2017, 7:14 AM ]


Magic Bus

posted Jul 13, 2017, 7:02 AM by IOD-WCA Webmaster   [ updated Jul 13, 2017, 7:09 AM ]


NATIONAL SAILING HALL OF FAME ANNOUNCES 2017 INDUCTEES

posted Jul 6, 2017, 7:15 AM by IOD-WCA Webmaster

2017 Hall of Fame
The National Sailing Hall of Fame Announces its 2017 Inductees (from top left):
Bill Bentsen, Ray Hunt, Bill Martin, Clark Mills, Robbie Naish, Corny Shields, Randy Smyth, Tom Whidden

Ray Hunt photo © Mystic Seaport, Rosenfeld Collection. Robbie Naish photo © Craig Kolesky/Red Bull Content Pool    

Annapolis, Md. (June 29, 2017) – The National Sailing Hall of Fame (NSHOF) today announced the eight people who will make up its 2017 class of inductees:

Bill Bentsen (Winnetka, Ill./Lake Geneva, Wisc.), a two-time Olympic medalist – bronze in 1964 and gold in 1972 – who has created an indelible legacy for the sport through his contributions as a racing rules and race administration expert; 5.5 World Champion Ray Hunt (Duxbury, Mass.), the innately talented yacht designer of both sail and power vessels; boatbuilder Clark Mills (Clearwater, Fla.), best-known as the designer of the wildly popular Optimist dinghy used by children under age 16; windsurfing superstar Robby Naish (Haiku, Hawaii), who won his first world championship title at age 13 and went on to build a multi-million dollar watersports business; two-time Tornado Olympic Silver Medalist Randy Smyth (Ft. Walton Beach, Fla.), whose expertise as a catamaran sailor led to, among other things, work on major motion pictures; and noted America’s Cup sailor Tom Whidden (Essex, Conn.), the industry giant who recently celebrated 30 years with global brand North Sails.  Two additional Inductees are being recognized with the NSHOF Lifetime Achievement Award: avid sailor Bill Martin (Ann Arbor, Mich.), whose leadership roles in business and sailing – including the Presidency of the U.S. Olympic Committee –  led to a noteworthy 10 years as Athletic Director at the University of Michigan, and Corny Shields (New Rochelle, N.Y.), winner of the inaugural Mallory Cup which earned him national recognition on the cover of Time magazine in 1953, who conceived the Shields one-design in 1964 and founded the I.O.D. class.

The members of the class of 2017 join 57 previously-recognized individuals as the National Sailing Hall of Fame continues to fulfill its mission by drawing attention and recognition to Americans who have made outstanding contributions to the sport of sailing. 

“From the way the sport is run to its portrayal on the silver screen, this group of inductees has influenced the broad spectrum of today’s watersport’s enthusiast,” said Gary Jobson, President of the NSHOF. “In proudly recognizing the legacy of these contributors, by preserving and sharing their stories, the NSHOF is helping to inspire – and challenge – the next generation.”

Following a two-month period this spring during which sailors from all corners of the country nominated their choice for induction, a selection committee – made up of representatives from US Sailing, the sailing media, the sailing industry, community sailing, a maritime museum, a previous inductee, and the NSHOF Board – reviewed a wide range of nominations.

Inductees are American citizens, 45 years of age or older, who have made significant impact on the growth and development of the sport in the U.S. in the categories of Sailing, Technical/Design and Contributor (coach, administrator, sailing media). Nominations of non-citizens were also considered if they influenced the sport in the U.S., and posthumous nominations were also accepted. The undertaking to recognize Americans who have made outstanding contributions to the sport of sailing is central to the mission of the NSHOF which was formed in 2005 and has completed phase one of its plan to establish a permanent facility on the historic waterfront of Annapolis, Maryland.

The Lifetime Achievement Award inducts an American citizen, 55 years of age or older, who has had consistent involvement in sailing for a majority of his or her life and had success in the sport while also becoming successful and achieving noteworthy stature in a non-sailing career.

The 2017 class will be formally celebrated on Sunday, September 24, 2017, with an Induction Ceremony hosted at the world-renowned New York Yacht Club’s Harbour Court Station in Newport, Rhode Island. The Induction Weekend has become notable as a reunion of sailing’s Who’s Who with attendance already confirmed by these previous Inductees: Betsy Alison, Malin Burnham, Steve Colgate, Dave Curtis, JJ Fetter, Meade Gougeon, Peter Harken, Gary Jobson, Bruce Kirby, Bob Johnstone, Rob Johnstone, Timmy Larr, Buddy Melges, Ted Turner and Dave Ullman.

The invitation only event is sponsored by Rolex Watch U.S.A. Additional support is provided by Greenvale Vineyards, Mount Gay Rum, Newport Shipyard, Sea Gear, Vanquish Boats, Volvo Penta and WX/Bread & Butter Wines.  The NSHOF will dedicate the 2017 Induction to Sail Newport, Rhode Island’s Public Sailing Center.

For more on the Inductees, please visit:  


About the NSHOF:  The National Sailing Hall of Fame is a not-for-profit educational institution dedicated to:  preserving the history of the sport and its impact on American culture; honoring those who have made outstanding contributions to the sport of sailing; the teaching of math, science and American history; inspiring and encouraging sailing development; and providing an international landmark for sailing enthusiasts. The NSHOF has partnered with US Sailing and the U.S. Naval Academy, and is associated with yacht clubs throughout the country, in its efforts to recognize role models of outstanding achievement. For more information on the NSHOF, please visit:  www.nshof.org

Cindy Kicks up her heels for Nantucket Invitational Regatta

posted Jul 6, 2017, 7:10 AM by IOD-WCA Webmaster

Cindy Kicks up her heels for Nantucket Invitational Regatta
Thirteen teams assembled on the “Old Grey Lady” of Nantucket for the 20th IOD invitational regatta on June 23, 2017. They represented Chester, San Francisco, Fishers Island, Gibson Island, MD, Manhattan Yacht Club, Marblehead and Northeast Harbor, joining six teams from Nantucket including one from the Nantucket High School.
Our arrival coincided with the remains of tropical storm Cindy making for stiff winds on Friday and Saturday. Unhappily one mast was lost in a collision in Friday’s second race. Saturday’s start was delayed until after noon and while the skies cleared of clouds there was no drop in the winds. Two races were sailed under the Y flag—no spinnakers. By Sunday, the situation had reversed and the wind was almost too light.
Six good races were sailed and each was one by a different team. Chester, Great Harbor (Nantucket), San Francisco in a light air race, Fishers Island, and two Nantucket regulars, Constable and McCausland.
At the end of the day, Sunday, the top place went to Ted Murphy from Chester on a tie-breaker with Richard Werdiger (Great Harbor) 12 points each. Murphy scored two seconds to Werdiger’s one. Third place went to Paul Manning from San Francisco with 14 points. He won the last race with a frantic tacking duel against Charlie VanVoorhis who wound up in fourth with 17 points.  (Shown is the winning team from Chester, NS. “I never before sailed with both my boyfriend and my mother.”)

Chester IOD wins Bermuda Race Week

posted May 22, 2017, 9:02 AM by IOD-WCA Webmaster   [ updated May 22, 2017, 9:03 AM ]


Published on May 5th, 2017 

by Dayna Nelder, Scuttlebutt Sailing News
Our International One Design fleet from Chester, Nova Scotia, has been busy building a reputation in Bermuda. Ted Murphy and crew followed Peter Wickwire’s historic three-peat win with a win of our own at 80th Bermuda International Invitational Race Week on April 30 to May 5, 2017.

The week was made even more memorable with the America’s Cup boats foiling around and through our course in the Great Sound. This year’s BIIRW was hotly contested, with sailors from Bermuda, Norway, Sweden, the United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States attending the regatta. Only five points separated the top three, with the regatta coming down to the last race. Giles Peckham of Cowes came second, and Patrick Cooper of Bermuda finishing third.

Nothing compares to the sight of IODs barreling towards their leeward gate with the cutting edge of sailing, foiling across their course. It is amazing to think that after eighty-one years of innovations the IOD is still able to make its presence known among these multihulls. Racing in the vicinity of the AC yachts was an awesome contrast of how far sailing has come in the last century and not to mention, a bit distracting! The foiling harmonics are incredible.

Our crew hails from the Chester IOD Fleet. We raced with an all-Nova Scotian team starring our local sailing legend, Jeff Brock, on tactics. The rest of our amazing crew was made up of Jonny Seller on main trim, Dave Wedlake on headsail trim, Jamie Blunden on the bow, skipper Ted Murphy, and myself on panel. Our skipper fell in love with the IOD after racing on the first IOD, Aileen, a few years ago. Our crew found success and managed to secure a qualifying slot to represent Chester this year at BIIRW.

The Bermuda IOD fleet truly knows how to put on a great regatta for its fellow sailors. Thirteen fleets from around the world came to compete and we were all lucky enough to have a place to stay and every day were we able to sail a new boat! During registration there was a boat raffle and the number your skipper picked decided your lot for the week.

After the first day of racing we had our new rivals boats’ memorized for the rest of the week and every day we would look for them on the water to make our moves. Some boats are inherently slightly faster than others, and the pressure is on when there is only a point between your crew and the winning crew and you had their boat the day before and you know how it performed!

The top three competitors spent the first four days trading top finishes. Every race was a grueling quadruple windward-leeward, with lots of time for late shake-ups.

It was the team from Bermuda with skipper Patrick Cooper that set the standard by getting straight bullets the first day. We realized that playtime was over; it was time to get to work and start chipping away. The second day we spent exchanging first place with the skipper Giles Peckham and crew from the Cowes Daring fleet. On the third day, the Cowes crew made it known that they were here to win and followed through with firsts all day. But our time came on the fourth day, when we were able to push for straight bullets.

It came down to the last race to know who would win the overall spot. The pressure was certainly felt and one false move, one missed shift, you could lose your slight edge. The last race featured a number of lead changes in a tricky course close to shore. In the end, we got a 3rd, to Cowes’ 2nd and Bermuda’s 6th, meaning we won the whole week. The first prize was not just bragging rights but for our name on the Vrengen Gold Cup. Let me tell you, the taste of champagne from a cold gold cup in beautiful Bermuda was well worth the bruises and blisters!

Cheers to all of our great competitors, and we hope to see you in Chester for the IOD North Americans in 2018 and the Worlds in 2020.

The full results are available at: https://www.iodfleet.bm/index.php/events/biir/29-biir-2017-results-overall.

Long-Term One-Design, IOD-Style

posted May 22, 2017, 7:09 AM by IOD-WCA Webmaster   [ updated Jun 8, 2017, 7:04 AM ]

This article is a work in progress. It highlights some of the changes in the class over the years that have kept the class competitive, fun, and relevant. Many readers will have knowledge of another part of this story. Please submit comments to the Class Secretary for correcting or adding to this piece. It will remain on the class website as part of class history.


From early in the 20th century, there were many fleets of keelboats created as onedesign classes, but the International One-Design Class is extraordinary among boats 30-feet and longer. Many of these classes continue today, but few have been successful in avoiding the obsolescence of the early boats, with fiberglass hulls, aluminum or carbon rigs, and the modernization of hardware and cordage. The work of a number of dedicated individuals and the strength of many individual competitive fleets had a lot to do with the success that the class has achieved in 80 years.


One-design concept – When Corny Shields formed the class, he framed the rules to keep costs from driving down class growth. He developed a sail purchase plan to buy new sails for every boat in a fleet at the same time. This leads to a 5-6 year life for mains and 3-4 years for jibs or spinnakers. He limited costly mid-season haul outs as a drier, lighter boat might have an edge. It was a time of few rules. The boats were all the same from the builder, and there was no need to specify sail dimension or rig position in a set of rules. The top sailors in the region came to sail against Corny. With few rules, they experimented to find the best way to balance and make their hull go through the water a little faster than the identical hull alongside. Finding the best setting for the head stay length or the jumpers, the rake, or tension or position of shroud attachment was the game to get the best power out of identical boats and sails. Corny gathered many great sailors, and the fleet grew as the thrill of competing against the best attracted many who wanted to learn from the masters.


Transition to glassThere were similar developments at the other early International Class (as it was then called) fleet venues in Bermuda and Northeast Harbor. But these fleets in vastly different climates and different length sailing seasons had different wear and tear on their boats. As aging of all the fleets moved on there was a demand for new boats from new materials. Early fiberglass boats, stronger and lighter in many other one-design classes, had obsolesced the older wooden boats. Jim Bishop knew from personal experience in the Atlantic class that it was tricky to bring in glass boats while keeping the wooden boats competitive. Working with top naval architects, he helped the class design a fiberglass layup schedule for the new plastic IODs that gave the hulls the same weight and weight distribution as the original wood boats. Initially built by Bjarne Äas, the builder of the wooden boats, the successful outcome showed no speed differences between the two construction techniques. The class soon built two sets of molds and licensed other builders to use them. By the 1970s and 80s, nearly all of the 1937 wood boats in Bermuda were replaced by glass boats, some from Europe or the US, most from the Bermuda IOD Company. Of course, there were some minor differences, but the boats were designed with 75 mm of fore and aft latitude in positioning the mast at the step and the partners. This skipper’s choice in setting up the rig permitted good sailors to find the right power and balance settings for each slightly different hull and sails.


Aluminum rigs – These initial mast position decisions in different boats were with wooden spars, but mast technology was also advancing with new materials. As different fleets sought aluminum mast solutions, the class management was very hands-off, leaving fleets to make their own decisions. Marblehead sailors did independent wind tunnel testing on different mast sections at MIT to determine that the Kenyon section for the J-30 spar had windage characteristics closest to the wooden spar section. The lads in Corny’s fleet worried that the Etchells 22s starting 5 minutes behind them would often finish ahead of the IODs, so they selected a smaller aluminum section with less windage, raised the hounds, removed the upper spreaders, and lengthened the spinnaker pole in order to amp up the IOD in their light Western Long Island Sound breezes. Bermuda sails with a similar rig. San Francisco had different manufacturer choices and selected a Ballard spar with the Classic Rig, double spreaders and jumpers. Northeast Harbor, with a short season, cold winters and great local craftsmen continue to use wooden spars, some of them original from 1938. In Europe, they needed yet another aluminum spar maker, Selden who mimicked the Larchmont configuration, or the Modern Rig in the present Class Rules. In 1996, Norway held the World Championship in about 20 host provided boats with half wooden Classic Rig and half aluminum Modern Rig. The competitors changed boats every race and saw some slight advantage of one rig over the other in the range of breeze seen that week, but boat swaps made it a fair competition. This validates the class rules that permit the owner to set up his own rig with few dimensional restrictions.


Hardware and Cordage – Over 80 years, some hardware naturally wore out. Different builders had to replace some hardware with what they had locally. Meanwhile the Harken brothers brought us a whole new panoply of hardware choices. With the minor differences on hulls and rigs largely dialed out by owner rig setup, the differences between substantially equal boats often came down to boat handling. This has become another puzzle for owners to figure out how to help their crew come out of maneuvers in the fast lane. Travelers had not been invented when the boat and rig was designed in 1936, but they helped depower the big IOD main in a puff without opening the leach and without breaking a wooden boom with vang sheeting. Two-to-one original jib sheets with Vernier fine tune gave way to one-toone to a winch that was lighter and vastly superior to the winches of the 1930s. Head knockers, barney posts, Cunninghams, twings and through the deck blocks to racks of cam cleats have all appeared on many IODs. Kevin Mahaney, Olympian and Maine IOD sailor developed a more modern application of Harken hardware for sheeting and other adjustments. Since then, stripped double braid did away with carrying both heavy and light spinnaker sheets, and four-to-one fine tune tackle on Spectra main halyards eliminate many a halyard winch. These differences between individual one-design boats give some crews an advantage in honing their boat handling skills in their regular fleet racing. Differences in running rigging also challenge the teams at borrowed-boat championships when the crews change boats after every race and must quickly train themselves with many new and different sail controls. It seems that every one-design class started prior to the Laser has dealt with many of these changes. For the IOD it is a way to keep our 30- and 50- and 80- year-old boats competitive against the much newer boats.


Rules for Class Growth – As mentioned above, when Corny Shields started, the rules were essentially to prohibit high cost boat speed alternatives. When the class constitution and championship regulations were penned sometime in the 1960s or 70s, there was a reliance on the authorized builders turning out long lasting boats with the same hull and sail plan as boats built before. There were a few specified dimensions such as on replacement deck thickness to prohibit the use of significantly lighter materials. It has taken a great measurement effort by Charlie Van Voorhis and the Technical Committee to produce the Class Rules in 2015, recently updated with the help of World Sailing. Now they specify that the hull as designed, built for equal original weight and distribution, and a sail plan that can be held aloft by either the Classic Rig or the Modern Rig, and each fleet is to designate one rig or the other. Fleets can specify other local rules such as what electronic instruments can be aboard, but the class rules that define an IOD are open. If the class rules do not prohibit something, then it is allowed, and owners are only limited by class dimensional rules. The choice of rule structure is required by World Sailing to be closed or open and any choice but open rules for an 80-year-old class with boats, rigs and sails made by more than a dozen different manufacturers would be chaotic. Each owner has wide range to configure his boat to suit his purposes and ideas, and fleets or sailing instructions may not establish more stringent rules than the Class Rules without consent of the Class for a local exception. Having the openness to attract each owner’s ingenuity is a strength that has served the class well over four score years of technological development and it’s application drives keen competition.


June 2017

1938 Life Magazine - Moxham's International Class Boat

posted May 11, 2017, 9:50 AM by IOD-WCA Webmaster   [ updated May 22, 2017, 8:50 AM ]


Life Magazine, 1938

Sailing on Long Island Sound

To most landlubbers, Long Island Sound is an unromantic place, but to amateur sailors, it is a paradise. They like it best when a spanking sou’wester blows up the Sound, spraying white caps over the slippery decks of their boats. Then, from every cove and harbor from Throgs Neck to New London, they skim out into open water, ready for an overnight race around Block Island or for a shorter sail around a triangular course near their home port. Along the shores of the Sound are more salt-water yacht clubs (well over 100) than along any comparable coastline in the world. 

Today, as for 75 years, the Sound is the hub of American yachting. Gone are most of the huge steam yachts, gaff-rigged sloops and professional crews of the days when only the very rich could afford to sail. In their place are thousands of smaller boats, costing less but sailing faster. One of the first of these newer boats to be built was a schooner Niña, shown here boating to windward. A fast and sturdy ocean racer, the Niña cost about $30,000 and is now owned by D Coursey Fales, a New York lawyer. Smaller and more popular are the International Class yachts shown on the following pages. 

IODs overtaking Artemis

posted May 9, 2017, 7:54 AM by IOD-WCA Webmaster   [ updated May 22, 2017, 8:50 AM ]


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